Grade 4 Science Project:
Instruments that Extend Our Ability to See

The grade 4's used the internet to research technological developments that extend our ability to see. While working in groups, they chose an instrument, recorded it's inventor, the date of it's invention, it's function, and it's use. They also provided an image of the instrument.

The Telescope
By: Taylor T., Derek T., Renata H., and Brennan R.
The telescope was invented in 1621 by Galileo Galilei.

Refracting telescopes use lenses, and reflecting telescopes use mirrors to gather and bend light, making things seem larger. The lenses used in refracting telescopes are called convex lenses. Convex lenses make things bigger, but blurry.

Telescopes are used for beam tests and for research. They make research easier because they make things bigger.

The X-Ray Machine
By: Andrew K., Danika P., Karissa M., and Anton H.

Date of the Invention: November 18, 1895

Inventor: Wilhelm Roentgen

How it works: A beam of high energy electrons crashes into a metal target through the hand, body, or foot, and produces an x-ray. Radiation (a form of energy) comes out of the x-ray machine and hits the object, and then the x-ray film. The radiation can not go through thick objects like bones or teeth. But it can go through thin objects like skin. This makes the thin areas black or gray, while the thick areas stay white. The electrons in a x-ray machine zip around at thousands of miles per hour.

What it is used for: To look at bones that might be fractured or broken, to see something that might have been swallowed, to examine teeth, to check baggage in the airport, and many other things.

The Camera
By: Zorianna G., Tatiana P., Ashley W., and Zoryana T.

Date of Invention: The first camera was invented in 1839.

Inventor: George Eastman

How it Works: Basically a camera is dark box that holds light sensitive film at one end. Light enters a hole through a glass or plastic lens, and exposes the film to make a picture. On the back of the camera an image is always upside down after passing through a camera's lens.

What it's used for: A camera is used for taking photographs and pictures of things so you can show other people what you wanted to share. You have to develop and pick up your pictures at a store. At home you can look at your pictures, and show or give them to other people. After that you have to put new film in and take more pictures or photographs. Two neat types of cameras are a Polaroid and a digital camera.

The Periscope
By: Brody F., Tanner E., Orest, M., and Stefan S.

A periscope is like a telescope but a periscope has some angles to it. There are two mirrors in a periscope at a 45 degree angle. A periscope helps you see around walls, corners, and over stuff. A periscope is very helpful. Most submarines use periscopes to see over water. The person who invented the periscope was Arthur Davidson on October 2, 1917. The periscope works by reflecting light off of two mirrors.

By: Michael T., Chad O., Olga J., Brooke H.
 Date of invention: eye glasses were first made in 1284 in Italy.

Inventor: Salvino D'Armate

How it works: Eyeglasses work by changing the direction of the light so that you can see the images much clearer . The more light that bounces off the lenses, the better the focus, and the more clearly a person can see. Lenses are made from either glass or plastic. Glasses work by helping people to see better. Some people use eye glasses if they can't see far or close objects. People also wear glasses outdoors to block the sun.

What it is used for: Eyeglasses are used for improving eyesight - either seeing long distance or close up. Some eyeglasses are used for fashion and to protect the eyes when working. Sunglasses help protect eyes from the sun's radiation.


The Microscope
By: Stephanie P., Ania B., Justin M., Erik A.
 Date of invention: 1625

Inventor: Galileo Galilei.

How it works : Microscopes work by using a combination of different lenses and a light source. The lenses are convex (curved outward). The lens closest to the object being viewed is the objective lens. The other lens is the eyepiece, and is used to magnify the image formed by the objective lens. The total power of the microscope is the product of the magnification of the two lenses. For example, a ninety power microscope means that at the clearest focus, the object being observed is about ninety times its original size.

What it is used for: Microscopes are used for enlarging germs and other small items that the human eye can't see. Doctors use microscopes when they look at blood samples.


By: Christine M., Hayley S., Jacob F., Christopher P.

Binoculars were invented in 1894 by Carl Zeiss.

Binoculars are made of two telescopes mounted together side by side, one for each eye. All binoculars have these three parts:

  1. an objective lens that creates an upside down image.
  2. a set of prisms that turns the image right side up, and
  3. an eyepiece that magnifies the image.

Binoculars can help you see things closer up. The process by which this is done is by utilizing curved glass lenses and multiple lenses within the frame to magnify the subject as it passes through to the next lens.

Binoculars are usually used for hunting, bird watching, spying, and sometimes just to enjoy looking around.